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Less Continued on back jlap. I 87 1 Clduciiari C laud i an, Fi. Music scores, orchestral sets and certain materials must be returned to branch from which borrowed. All materials must be returned by the last date stamped on the card. Fines are charged for overdue items.
Edmundsbunj Press Ltd, Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, on wood-free paper. He was born about the year a. The thirty to forty odd years which comprised his life were some of the most momentous in the history of Rome.
Valentinian and Valens were emperors respectively of the West and the East when he was born, and while the former was engaged in constant warfare with the northern tribes of Alamanni, Quadi and Sarmatians, whose advances the skill of his general, Theodosius, had managed to check, the latter was being reserved for unsuccessful battle with an enemy still more deadly.
It is about the year that we begin to hear of the Huns. The first people to fall a victim to their eastward aggression were the Alans, next came the Ostrogoths, whose king, Hermanric, was driven to suicide ; and by the Visigoths were threatened with a similar fate.
Hemmed in by the advancing flood of Huns and the stationary power of Rome this people, after a vain attempt to ally itself with the latter, was forced into arms against her. An indecisive battle with the generals of Valens was followed by a crushing Roman defeat in the succeeding year August 9j at Adrianople, where vii.
Gratian and his half-brother, Valentinian II. Theodosius was summoned from his retirement in Spain and made Augustus January 19, During the next three years he succeeded, with the help of the Frankish generals, Bauto and Arbogast, in gradually driving the Goths northward, and so relieved the barbarian pressure on the Eastern Empire and its capital.
In Athanaric, the Gothic king, sued in person for peace at Constantinople and there did homage to the emperor. In the following year the Visigoths became alhes of Rome and, for a time at least, the danger was averted. Meanwhile the West was faring not much better. Gratian, after an uneasy reign, was murdered in by the British pretender, Magnus Maximus. Valentinian fled to Thessalonica and there threw himself on the mercy of Theodosius.
Once more that general was to save the situation, viii. The next scene in the drama is the murder at Vienne on May 15, , of the feeble Valentinian at the instigation of Arbogast.
Arbogast s triumph was, however, short-lived. Not daring himself, a Frank, to assume the purple he invested therewith his secretary, the Roman Eugenius, intending to govern the West with Eugenius as a mere figure-head. Eugenius was executed but Arbogast made good his escape, only to fall a few weeks later by his own hand. Theodosius himself died on January 17, , leaving his two sons, Arcadius and Honorius, emperors of the East and West respectively. Arcadius was but a tool in the hands of his praetorian prefect, Rufinus, whose character is drawn with such venomous ferocity in Claudian s two poems.
Almost equally powerful and scarcely less corrupt seems to have been that other victim of Claudian s splenetic verses, the eunuch chamberlain Eutropius, who became consul in the year Both these men suffered a violent end: Eutropius, in spite of the pleadings of S.
John Chrysostom, was put to death by Gainas, the commander of the Gothic troops in the East Rufinus was torn to pieces in the presence of Arcadius himself by his Eastern troops. Stihcho, who had been one of Theodosius generals, had been put in command of the troops sent to oppose Alaric, the Visigoth, when the latter had broken away from his allegiance to Rome and was spreading devastation throughout Thrace, Macedonia and Thessaly.
He was successful in his campaign, but, upon his marching south into Greece, in order to rid that country also of its Gothic invaders, he was forbidden by Rufinus to advance any farther. There can be Uttle doubt that the murder of Rufinus was Stihcho s answer. In spite of a subsequent victory over Alaric near Elis in the year , Stilicho s success can have been but a partial one, for we find the Visigoth general occupying the post of Master of the Soldiery in Illyricum, the withholding of which office had been the main cause of his defection.
Possibly, too, the revolt of Gildo in Africa had something to do with the unsatisfactory termination of the Visigothic war. It is interesting to observe the dependence of Italy on African corn, a dependence of which in the first century of the Christian era Vespasian, and right at the end of the second the pretender Pescennius Niger, threatened to make use.
If we can credit the details of Claudian s poem on the war No. The poet, it may be remarked, was in an awkward position with regard to the war for, X. Stilicho, who had married Serena, niece and adoptive daughter of Theodosius, still further secured his position by giving his daughter, Maria, in marriage to the young Emperor Honorius in the year This " father-in-law and son-in-law of an emperor," as Claudian is never wearied of calling him, did the country of his adoption a signal service by the defeat at Pollentia on Easter Day April 6 , , of Alaric, who, for reasons of which we really know nothing, had again proved unfaithful to Rome and had invaded and laid waste Italy in the winter of The battle of Pollentia was the last important event in Claudian s lifetime.
So much for the historical background of the life of the poet. Of the details of his career we are not well informed. For an adverse and probably unfair view of Stilicho see Jerome, Ep. We are ignorant even of the date of his birth and can only conjecture that it was about the year We have, for what it is worth, the word of 1 C.
Now in the Naples Museum. Arcadius et Honorius [fe-] licissimi et doctissimi imperatores senatu petente statuam in foro divi Traiani erigi collocarique iusserunt. The inscription may be translated: Permanent Secretary , master of the ennobling arts but above all a poet and most famous of poets, though his own poems are enough to ensure his immortality, yet, in thankful memory of his discretion and loyalty, their serene and learned majesties, the Emperors Arcadius and Honorius have, at the instance of the senate, bidden this statue to be raised and set up in the Forum of the Emperor Trajan of blessed memory.
Rome and her kings—to one who has combined A Homer s music with a Vergil s mind. Canopus is almost certainly to be taken as synonymous with Egypt. But besides these two statements we have only to look at his interest in things Egyptian, e.
It is probable that, whether or not he spent all his early life in Egypt, Claudian did not visit Rome until It is not unlikely, therefore, that his change of country and of hterary language were more or less contemporaneous, and it is highly probable that he was in Rome before January 3, , on which day his friends the Anicii Probinus and Olybrius entered upon their consulship.
Speaking, moreover, of Stilicho s consulship in Claudian mentions a five years absence. As we see from the inscription quoted above, he became vir clarissimus, tribunus et notarius, and, as he does not continue further along the road of honours does not, for instance, become a vir spectahilis we must suppose that he served in some capacity on Stilicho s private staff. No doubt he became a sort of poet laureate.
It is probable that the " De raptu " was written during the first two years of his sojourn at the court of Milan. It is to this circumstance that we are to attribute the unfinished state of Claudian s poem. The Emperor Honorius became consul for the third time on January 3, , and on this occasion Claudian read his Panegyric in the emperor s presence.
This was the murder of Rufinus, the praetorian prefect, amid the circumstances that have been related above. To the year belong the Panegyric on the 1 Praef. We have already seen that the Gildo episode and Claudian s poem on that subject are to be attributed to this same year. The consuls for the year were both, in different ways, considered worthy of the poet s pen.
The scene of the recitation seems to have been the Bibliotheca Templi Apollinis. The last of Claudian s datable public poems is that on the sixth consulship of Honorius. It was composed probably towards the end of and recited in Rome on or after the occasion of the emperor s triumphant entry into the city. The emperor had just returned after inflicting a defeat on the Goths at Verona in the summer of It is reasonable to suppose that this triumphant entry to which the poem refers in some detail, In the year Claudian seems to have married some protegee of Serena s.
Of the two poems addressed to her the " Laus Serenae " is clearly the earlier, and we may take the other, the " Epistola ad Serenam," to be the last poem Claudian ever wrote. It is a poem which seems to have been written on his honeymoon, during the course of which he died.
Even as a poet Claudian is not always despicable, His descriptions are often clever, e. But perhaps Claudian s forte is invective. The panegyrics with the doubtful exception of that on 1 Still more striking is the comparison of Claudian s latinity with that of his contemporary, the authoress of the frankly colloquial Peregrinatlo ad loca sancta see Grandgent, Vulgar Latin, p. Wcilfflin, " Uber die Latinitat der P.
Claudian s faults are easy to find. He mistook memory for inspiration and so is often wordy and tedious, as for instance in his three poems on Stilicho s consulship. Worse than this he is frequently obscure and involved—witness his seven poems on the drop of water contained within the rock crystal.
The besetting sin, too, of almost all post-VirgiUan Roman poets, I mean a " conceited " frigidity, is one into which he is particularly liable to fall. Examples are almost too numerous to cite but the following are typical: The second of these two poems can scarcely be held to be serious, and although the first is unobjectionable it cannot be said to stamp its author as a sincere Christian, Orosius - and S.
The " Carmina minora " may have been published about the same time. The subsequent conflation of these two portions came to be known as " Claudianus maior," the " De raptu " being " Claudianus minor. I give Birt s abbreviations. Contains only the " Carmina minora. Contains only the Latin " Gigantomachia. Contains only " De Nilo. Vaticanus 12th century. Contains all the " Carmina maiora " except as usual the " De raptu " and " Pan. This is Heinsius " Regius.
Neapolitanus Borbonicus E Contains all the " maiora " except the " De raptu " and " Pan. Each of them resembles the other closely and both come from a common parent. Under 6 may further be mentioned the Basel edition of Isengrin , which preserves an independent tradition.
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